Rik Leemans is Professor of Environmental Systems Analysis at Wageningen University (The Netherlands). His research focuses on ecosystems and biodiversity and accentuates resilience, vulnerability and sustainability. His early studies at Uppsala University (Sweden) and the International Institute of Applied System Analyses (Austria) emphasized boreal forests. He then directed the development of IMAGE-2, a global climate-change model, at the Dutch Environmental Assessment Agency. He further actively participates the UN-Panels on Climate Change (IPCC) and biodiversity (IPBES), and in ICSU/ISSC’s international interdisciplinary global-change research programmes, and is editor-in-chief of Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability.